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In General Of Kalimantan Island

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In General Of Kalimantan Island
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Description of the nature shown in this paper no longer relevant to the natural state of Kalimantan today. Changes have occurred here and there. However, the information in this article are retained as supplementary illustrations and document the situation and state of nature at that time - Admin

 

 


 

In the local language, Kalimantan means the island which has large rivers (kali 'river'; mantan 'big'). Kalimantan island is also known as Brunai, Kalimantan, Tanjung Negara (in the Hindu), and with the local name the island of Bagawan Bawi Lewu Telo. This island is the largest island in Indonesia, vast reach five times the size of the island of Java. Kalimantan surrounded by the sea, to the west there Karimata Strait, east of the Makassar Strait and Sulawesi Sea, north of the South China Sea and Sulu, and south of the Java Sea.

Land of Kalimantan including tertiary formations a very thick, which began to form beneath the sea surface in ancient times. This formation causes soil Kalimantan contains coal and crag at the foot of the mountains former coastal. At the time sea surface height decreases, tertiary formations were eroded so disjointed and undulating land made discontinuous with hills and small rivers. In general, this soil is infertile and difficult to be irrigated rice fields and watery only in the rain. This area therefore suitable only for plants that live on dry land.

In the next stage of tertiary formations in the coastal and bays gradually formation covered with kwartier, ie the younger formations are formed from clay and most of the covered by peat from falling leaves. This land is preferred by the farmers to be created sawah bayar or tidal rice field.

kalimantan

Kalimantan island have small islands, mountains, rivers and others. Some islands are noted: Labuhan Island, Maya, Bunyu, Tarakan, Karimata, Sea, Sebuku, Natuna, Subi, Serasan, Teberian, Panebangan, Damar, Karayaan, Keramayan, Nunukan, Sebatik, Bangkudulis, Baru, Tibi, Derawan, length and Kakaban.

Mountains in Kalimantan : Kapuas Mountains, Schwaner, Muller, Meratus, and Madi. The highest mountain on the island is located in North Kalimantan is the height of Mount Kinabalu 4175 m and Bukit Raya 2218 m.

Bukit Raya is located in the territory of Indonesia has three peaks, with the highest peak in the middle, according to a 2278 topographic map m. The first European to climb the Bukit Raya is GAF Molengraaf, which culminated on October 7, 1894, though not the highest peak.

On 22-24 December 1924 the highest peak of Bukit Raya expedition climbed by the German-Dutch Botanika under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Hans Winklen. Participated in the expedition, among others P. Dakkus, one Dutch and two of Indonesia, Rachmat, experts from the Bogor Botanical Gardens and Entja, a worker at the Herbarium in Bogor.

Some headlands are recorded on the island of Kalimantan: Tanjung Sampan Mangio, Datuk, Baram, Usang, Sambar, Silat (South), Puting, Layar, Mangkalihat, and Malatayur.

Existing Bay: Berunai Bay, Balikpapan, Adang, Paitan, Marudu, St. Lucia, Datu, Darvel, Kumai, Sekatok, Sampit, Serban , and Sebangau.

Rivers are scattered throughout Kalimantan Island section. In North Kalimantan: Sungai Batang Lupar, Trusan, Krian, Padas, Batang Rayang, Kinabatangan, Kemenah, Kagibangan, Baram, Segama, Sugut, Kalumpang, Radas, and Kalapang.

In East Kalimantan: Sebuku river, Kayan, Sembakung Berau, Sesayap, Karangan, and Sekatuk Mahakam. Central Kalimantan: Barito river or Murung with the river kids Tewe River, Murung, Lahei , Kumai, Arut / Lamandau, Jelai, Kapuas, Kahayan with river kids, Sebangau, Katingan or Mendawai, Mentaya or Sampit, and Pembuang or Seruyan.

In South Kalimantan: Martapura river, Aluh-aluh Besar, Batu Laki, Hantu, Durian, Barito (only until Barito Kuala), Kupang, Batu Licin, and Bahan. Kalimantan Barat: Kapuas River (Kapuas Bohang), Paloh, Sambas, Sebangkau, Ambawang, Sebakuan, Melinsan, Mempawah, Landak, Kapuas Kecil, Kawalan, Kayung, Sengkulu, Simpang, Pawan, Air Hitam Besar, and Kendawangan.

Soil conditions and vegetation

In coastal areas, where the river disembogue wide 1 to 2 km, there is the marsh which at the time of high tide and flood covered by sediment carried by rivers. If the sediment reaches 1 meter thick and mix with peat, the land is planted with plants that are rooted, the likes of acid such as type of family nyrtaceae like galam, palmae, rumbia , and keladi air, banana type, kancur-kancur, kesisap sayur, watermelon, sweet potato and pumpkin (waluh).

Then, too Compositae family, type langsat, petah kemudi, galah motawauk, famili papiliomacena, type sup-supan, kangkung, genjer, bingkai dan balaran daliand family nyphacacene.

On the beach where there are no rivers estuary, except rocky, dry soil and wavy shape. Vegetation in this coastal dry land: graminae family, type of reeds, gelagah, telor belalang, telor jarum, paku payung, kangkung, hutan krokot, wedasan, karmalaha, masisin, keramunting, sukma, hutan, tambaran-tambaran.

Meanwhile, the mainland behind coast and wavy including the high hills to 120 m, where there are orchards, moor and wet season (rice tadahan). In this area there (can grow) the trees of jackfruit, durian, rambutan, duku /langsat, kasturi, keminting, banana, papaya, and especially rubber.

In the lands that are less fertile because of erosion can only grow plants if enough the zat lemas and phosphorus as types: buntut tikus, tusuk konde, bayam duri, kerokot hijau, dan kerokot merah, jukut, maman hutan.

The lakes in Kalimantan used as a place maintenance of the fish, ducks (duck) and buffalo. Plant yerticellata-bydeilla and diatome very fertile and become a source of fish food. These lakes are famous: Danau Meninjau, Jempang, Melintang, Bulan, Semanjang, Sembuluh, Hampangen, Kamipang, Madara, Sentarum, dan Luard.

On the plains and mountains can be cultivated rice. The types of rice used, including a of mountain rice, namely: Rantaumudik, Badagai, Lurus Raden, Manjan Delima, gadis, Umbang. Several types imported from Bogor.

Forest

Kalimantan not only famous the wide rivers (some 200-1500 m), deep and long (300-500 km), but also famous for its dense forests and most had never been trodden by human foot.

When flying over the Kalimantan jungle will seem vast wilderness, and of course lots of wild animals as its habitant like the clouded leopard (hangkuliah Dayak language), orang utan (kahiu alas), bears, porcupines, snakes, (ular sawah), and crocodiles.

Until now most of Kalimantan was still composed of the jungle forest with wood which were large, reaching more than one meter diameters. This forest is one source of income or warehouse and prosperity of the people and country. This has been observed outside world since the Dutch colonial period until the Japanese occupation.

The opening of Kalimantan as a giant plans had been starting from Kalimantan Governor Dr. Murdjani. This is a great idea because Kalimantan forest products not only to provide prosperity and happiness to hundreds of thousands of people in a century or two, but will provide prosperity for the many thousands of millions of people to hundreds of centuries.

Kalimantan's forests so vast, has a variety of natural products. Among them: ironwood (tabalien, bulin, onglin, eusideroglon, zwageri) is well known as iron wood, kayu damar, kayu lanan, kayu garunggang, kayu tampurau, kayu rangas, kayu meranti, kayu bangkirai, kayu rasak, kayu palepek, kayu meran bungkan. Then kayu bangalan (agathis) or pilau which can be made plywood, paper, matches.

While rattan (uei Dayak language, pekat Banjar language) a lot sent out Kalimantan like the Java, even abroad. Some types of them: rotan taman, rotan sigi, irit, achas, semambu, tantuwu, lilin, belatung, bajungan and others. Some candles, honey, tree bark, a variety of resins and latex (rubber) complement the wealth of forest products in Kalimantan.

In the division of vegetation according to Dr. Schimper, forest in Kalimantan go into the category of tropical rain forest, which is divided again in several formations: brackish forest, palm forest, swamp forest, hills, scrubs/primer forests, and mountain forests.

Climate

According to Drs. A.H. Schmit and Ir. J.H.A. Ferfuson in Verhandelingen no. 42 of the Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics, the climate in Kalimantan included in the A type and B type.

Type A is the climate that has a rainy 12 months a year, which rainy more than 100 mm a month. While type B having of the year the climate lasts 10-11 months rainy with 1-2 months of drought.

Meanwhile, according to Dr. Mohr, the climate in Kalimantan, including type I and IA. Type I do not have the dry months while type IA has a 1-2 month dry season.

According to its nature, the climate of the types above, forest overgrown in the tropical rain.



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